A study tested the hypothesis that in addition to the food environment’s direct effect on obesity, the food environment is indirectly associated with obesity through consuming the Mediterranean diet. A total of 20,897 non-Hispanic black and white adults aged ≥45 years old were scored 0-9 on MD adherence and their body mass index was calculated. The findings of the study suggest that both, access to healthy food outlets and Mediterranean diet adherence have a significant inverse relationship with body mass index. Mediterranean diet adherence mediated the relationship between food environment and obesity among a subpopulation who had an annual household income of <$75 000. Population intervention policies aimed towards modifying the food environment and promoting Mediterranean diet consumption are needed to combat the obesity crisis within the United States.