Cognitive decline leads to the advancement of mild cognitive impairment and incipient dementia. This could result in an increase of Alzheimer’s disease and other patterns of severe dementia. In the Singapore Chinese Health Study, researchers found healthful dietary patterns, including the “alternate Mediterranean diet” (aMED), were inversely associated with the risk of cognitive impairment. In Europe, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk) study found that higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with better cognitive function and lower risk of poor cognition in older UK adults. Previous results from the PREDIMED trial demonstrated improved cognition associated with the Mediterranean diet supplemented with either nuts or extra-virgin olive oil.