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Meta-analysis / systematic reviews
Randomized controlled trials
Cross sectional studies
Animal trials & in vitro studies
Case reports opinion papers, and letters
A systematic review and network meta-analysis compared the effects of different types of olive oil (OO) on cardiovascular risk factors. Schwingshackl et. al identified thirteen randomized controlled trials (≥3 weeks duration of intervention) among 16 reports with 611 participants comparing at least two of the following types of OO: refined OO (ROO), mixed OO (MOO), low phenolic (extra) virgin OO (LP(E)VOO), and high phenolic (extra) virgin OO (HP(E)VOO). No differences for total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and diastolic blood pressure were observed comparing ROO, MOO, LP(E)VOO and HP(E)VOO. HP(E)VOO slightly reduced LDL-cholesterol compared to LP(E)VOO, both HP(E)VOO and LP(E)VOO reduced SBP compared to ROO, and HP(E)VOO may improve oxidized LDL-cholesterol compared to ROO. There was a suggested dose-response relationship between higher intakes of phenolic compounds from OO and lower systolic blood pressure and oxidized LDL-cholesterol. In conclusion, HP(E)VOO was ranked as the best treatment for LDL-cholesterol, oxidized LDL-cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure, although evidence is limited for determining public health implications.
In a prospective cohort of French women (E3N cohort), Mahamat-Saleh et. al. explored the relation between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the risk of skin cancer. The results showed a high score (6-9 points out of 9 total points) of adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern was associated with a lower risk of skin cancer, particularly melanoma and Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). However, there was no statistically significant association found between the individual components of the Mediterranean diet, including olive oil, and risk of skin cancer.
In a study with data collected from two cross sectional studies, Foscolou et. al. studied the association of Mediterranean food group consumption with successful aging (SA) among Greeks more than 50 years old. They found poultry, fish, dairy, vegetables, fruit, potatoes, cereals, olive oil, and alcohol had a positive association with SA, whereas meat had an inverse association. The diet-environmental interaction suggested the differential and hierarchical effect of various foods on SA according to region, specifically between mainlanders and islanders.
An invitro study by Qusa et. al. provided evidence towards the control and prevention of human triple negative breast cancer with the most bioactive phenolic compound found in olive oil. This phenolic compound, S-(-)-Oleocanthal (OC), has been documented with anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and anti-Alzheimer’s activities. The taste-masked OC-(+)xylitol solid dispersion formulation maintained potent in vivo anti-breast cancer activity, suppressing this cancer’s development, growth, and recurrence in mice models, suggesting its effectiveness as a potential nutraceutical.