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Post-Diagnostic Diet Quality and Mortality in Females with Self-Reported History of Breast or Gynecological Cancers: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).
Randomized controlled trial
Effect of a Nutritional and Behavioral Intervention on Energy-Reduced Mediterranean Diet Adherence Among Patients With Metabolic Syndrome: Interim Analysis of the PREDIMED-Plus Randomized Clinical Trial.
It is well known that Mediterranean Diet (MD) has a beneficial effect on a wide variety of chronic diseases including cardiovascular diseases, obesity and its related comorbidities, and different types of cancer. However, in one of the last studies of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NANHES III) the authors did not found a significant association between a higher MD adherence and a lower mortality risk in female cancer survivors (breast and gynecological (ovarian, cervical and uterine) cancer). In contrast to this results, in another epidemiological study, specifically a case-control study, demonstrated that a high MD pattern was related to a lower risk of bone fracture among women. When authors separate the analysis by food groups, some typical MD foods including olive oil, were observed to be protective factors.
In the last decade the interest in the MD as a model of a sustainable dietary pattern has increased. These environmental benefit has been attributed to the low consumption of animal products and a high consumption of plant-based foods, and also to reduced caloric intake. And thus has a smaller water footprint and lower greenhouse gas emissions than other dietary patterns. In this context, the aim of a 12-month randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the environmental impact of a MD pattern change. Although the authors showed that the MD group increase the adherence to the dietary pattern, this effect resulted in no change in greenhouse emissions and land use, but a relative increase in fossil energy use estimated from life-cycle assessments. Finally, in another randomized controlled trial, the PREDIMED-Plus trial, after 12-months of the intervention, those subjects in the energy-reduced MD and physical activity group showed a significantly greater increase in diet adherence compared with subjects in the group of an energy-unrestricted MD. By food groups, although both intervention groups increased the consumption of olive oil, no significant differences were found between groups. Because the findings of the present study are based on interim and preliminary analysis, whether and how these results may be related to long-term cardiovascular outcomes are unknown.