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Mental health

Evidence for Improved Cognitive Health with Diet: A Narrative Review.

Long-term diet quality and its change in relation to late-life subjective cognitive decline.

Maternal diet quality during pregnancy and child cognition and behavior in a US cohort.

The Mediterranean Lifestyle and the Risk of Depression in Middle-Aged Adults.

Cardiovascular disease

A score appraising Paleolithic diet and the risk of cardiovascular disease in a Mediterranean prospective cohort.

Prospective association between a Mediterranean-style dietary score in childhood and cardiometabolic risk in young adults from the ALSPAC birth cohort.

Prospective association between a Mediterranean-style dietary score in childhood and cardiometabolic risk in young adults from the ALSPAC birth cohort.

Cardiometabolic and antioxidant biomarkers

Whole blood fatty acid profile of young subjects and adherence to the Mediterranean diet: an observational cohort study.

Extra virgin olive oil high in polyphenols improves antioxidant status in adults: a double-blind, randomized, controlled, cross-over study (OLIVAUS).

Diet-induced Fasting Ghrelin Elevation Reflects the Recovery of Insulin Sensitivity and Visceral Adiposity Regression.

Diet quality of Norwegian children at 3 and 7 years: changes, predictors and longitudinal association with weight.

Cancer

Mediterranean Diet as a Shield against Male Infertility and Cancer Risk Induced by Environmental Pollutants: A Focus on Flavonoids.

Bone health

Mediterranean dietary pattern and bone mineral density: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies.

Aging

Healthy eating patterns and epigenetic measures of biological age.

Dietary Patterns and Intrinsic Capacity in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Quality of life

Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and subjective well-being among Chilean children.

Exploring Hedonic and Eudaimonic Items of Well-Being in Mediterranean and Non-Mediterranean Countries: Influence of Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Factors.

Other studies

Mediterranean diet - promotion and dissemination of healthy eating: proceedings of an exploratory seminar at the Radcliffe institute for advanced study.

Other news

Olive oil: Can it lower your risk of dying early?

Frying in virgin olive oil adds healthy compounds, researchers find



Summary:

Depression is estimated to affect more than 4.4% of the global population ranking as the third leading contributor to global disability (years lived with disability due to depressive disorders increased by 14.3% between 2007 and 2017) for both men as for women. There is evidence that having good lifestyle habits, which include a healthful diet, physical activity, not smoking, socializing, and more time spent at work have been associated with a greater decreased risk of depression and depressive symptoms.

In a study conducted in a Mediterranean cohort with 15,279 participants (6,089 men and 9,190 women, mean age 37 years), the MEDLIFE index was used to measure the risk of incident depression. This index evaluating key components of a traditional mediterranean lifestyle includes an assessment of food consumption, dietary habits, physical activity, but also cultural aspects of great value to health such as rest, social habits, and coexistence for a total of 28 items, more information on the scoring system can be found in the main text. This study suggested that increased adherence to MEDLIFE may decrease the risk of depression in a cohort of adult participants following Mediterranean diet recommendations.
For various reasons including the high content of phytochemicals in the Mediterranean diet and its multiple interactions across the entire body, this dietary pattern is strongly believed to improve cognitive function and subsequently delay the onset of cognitive decline. Another intervention study found that cognitive function, assessed with the Mini Mental State Examination, improved in participants 57 years old after a 12 week dietary intervention promoting PUFA omega 3 intake.

Mainly, the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet on depression have been attributed to the high intake of phytochemicals, vitamins, and minerals (zinc and magnesium), polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats (omega-3 fatty acids and oleic acid), and fiber. These compounds contribute to an adequate regulation of the cortisol hormone, reducing oxidative stress markers, increasing antioxidants, reducing inflammatory markers, favoring the modulation of the intestine-brain axis, mitochondrial function and even the modulation of the epigenetic state.

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