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Cardiovascular disease

Olive oil consumption is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke.

Plasma acylcarnitines and risk of incident heart failure and atrial fibrillation: the Prevención con dieta mediterránea study.

The impact of nutrition on the development and progression of peripheral artery disease: A systematic review.

Sleep and Association With Cardiovascular Risk Among Midwestern US Firefighters.

Mediterranean diet quality index is associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness and reduced systolic blood pressure in adults: A cross-sectional study.

Liver disease

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: lifestyle and quality of life.

Gut health

Adherence to mediterranean diet in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

Feeding with Sustainably Sourdough Bread Has the Potential to Promote the Healthy Microbiota Metabolism at the Colon Level.

COVID-19

Psychological distress resulting from the COVID-19 confinement is associated with unhealthy dietary changes in two Italian population-based cohorts.

Mediterranean diet

Adherence to the Mediterranean diet in Turkish hospitalized older adults and its association with hospital clinical outcomes.

Mediterranean diet, lifestyle and quality of life in Sardinian patients affected with Hidradenitis suppurativa.

Factors associated with successful dietary changes in an energy-reduced Mediterranean diet intervention: a longitudinal analysis in the PREDIMED-Plus trial.

Wine, Polyphenols, and Mediterranean Diets. What Else Is There to Say?

Diet quality and dietary patterns

Western and carnivorous dietary patterns are associated with greater likelihood of IBD-development in a large prospective population-based cohort.

Healthy and sustainable dietary patterns in children and adolescents: a systematic review.

Lifestyle

Multiple health behaviour change primary care intervention for smoking cessation, physical activity and healthy diet in adults 45 to 75 years old (EIRA study): a hybrid effectiveness-implementation cluster randomised trial.

Biological mechanisms

Does dietary fat affect advanced glycation end products and their receptors? A systematic review of clinical trials.

Bioactive compounds

Production and characterization of nanoemulsion with low-calorie structured lipids and its potential to modulate biomarkers associated with obesity and comorbidities.

Other news
Even a Non-Organic Mediterranean Diet Better Than Western, Oldways Says

Plant-Based Diets Linked with Much Lower Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Study Finds

Global Olive Oil Production Will Reach 4.4M Tons by 2050, Expert Projects

Olive Oil and the Sirtfood Diet

El III Simposium Internacional de Yale sobre Aceite de Oliva y Salud aborda cómo expandir la demanda mundial apoyándose en la sostenibilidad medioambiental

Greek Team Studies and Defines “High-Phenolic Olive Oil”

Summary:

The Mediterranean diet is considered the healthiest dietary pattern in the world, with olive oil being the hallmark of this traditional dietary pattern. Its high monounsaturated fatty acid content appears to have anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-thrombotic effects. Likewise, the polyphenols enriching virgin olive oil have also shown important cardioprotective effects through several mechanisms. A 2014 meta-analysis of epidemiological studies showed an inverse association with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular events, and stroke. However, a clear association between olive oil consumption and coronary heart disease (CHD) was not found. This week, a newly published article assessed the association between olive oil consumption and expressions of cardiovascular disease using data from three different Spanish cohorts: the Aragon Workers' Health Study (AWHS); the ‘Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra’(SUN) Project; and the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Spain cohort. Throughout the three cohorts, total olive oil consumption was found to be inversely associated with all cardiovascular end-points. Results from the EPIC study suggested a maximum benefit between 20 and 30 g/day, while consumptions above 30 g/day may not provide further advantage. The protective effect could be greater for virgin olive oil while also operating from early stages of the disease (i.e., preventing the formation of coronary calcium and atheroma plaques in the arteries). These results support the recommendation to reinforce the consumption of olive oil, preferably virgin and extra virgin, over other forms of fats for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Additional research is needed to clarify what is the optimal dose to obtain the desired benefits and disentangle the differences between common and virgin olive oil consumption in relation to cardiovascular risk and underlying mechanisms.

A common mechanism involved in the development of heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF) is fatty acid metabolic dysregulation in mitochondria. A new analysis within the Prevención con dieta mediterránea (PREDIMED) trial evaluated the association between plasma acylcarnitine levels and the incidence of HF or AF, and whether the mediterranean diet (MedDiet) may attenuate the association between acylcarnitines and HF or AF risk. Results revealed that elevated levels of medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines were associated with increased HF risk. For AF risk, a significant association was observed with long-chain acylcarnitines. Additive interaction of the association between long-chain acylcarnitines and AF by the MedDiet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil and by obesity was observed in an inverse and direct manner, respectively. Therefore, an intervention with MedDiet+extra-virgin olive oil may reduce AF risk associated with long-chain acylcarnitines.
For long-term nutrition trials, patient compliance to the intended dietary intervention is key to obtain a true measure of the effect, otherwise a lack of response to the intervention could prevent researchers from drawing accurate conclusions. Thus, a recent study aimed to identify baseline factors associated with successful dietary changes towards an energy-reduced MedDiet in the PREDIMED-Plus randomized trial. Results suggested that recruitment of individuals with high perceived self-efficacy to dietary change, and those who initially follow diets relatively richer in fiber may lead to greater changes in nutritional recommendations. On the other hand, participants with multiple chronic conditions, specifically depression, should receive specific tailored interventions.

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