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Obesity

Contribution of macronutrients to obesity: implications for precision nutrition

High levels of adiponectin attenuate the detrimental association of adiposity with insulin resistance in adolescents.

A Mediterranean diet intervention reduces the levels of salivary periodontopathogenic bacteria in overweight and obese subjects.

Metabolic syndrome

Leisure-Time Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour and Diet Quality are Associated with Metabolic Syndrome Severity: The PREDIMED-Plus Study.

Kidney diseases

Mediterranean diet adherence and risk of incident kidney stones.

Depression

Adherence to the Australian dietary guidelines and development of depressive symptoms at 5 years follow-up amongst women in the READI cohort study.

Neuronal pentraxin 2: a synapse-derived CSF biomarker in genetic frontotemporal dementia.

Cardiovascular disease

Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Spanish Population and Its Relationship with Early Vascular Aging according to Sex and Age: EVA Study.

Influence of Demographic and Lifestyle Variables on Plasma Magnesium Concentrations and Their Associations with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Mediterranean Population.

Comparison of dietary macronutrient patterns of 14 popular named dietary programmes for weight and cardiovascular risk factor reduction in adults: systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised trials.
Natural Bioactive Compounds As Protectors Of Mitochondrial Dysfunction In Cardiovascular Diseases And Aging.

Type 2 diabetes

Adjuvant Therapies in Diabetic Retinopathy as an Early Approach to Delay Its Progression: The Importance of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.

The Role of the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern on Metabolic Control of Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: A Narrative Review.

Cancer

The association between diet quality and cancer incidence of the head and neck.

Dietary behaviour change

Feasibility of the AusMed Diet Program: Translating

Neurodegenerative diseases

Influence of the Mediterranean and Ketogenic Diets on Cognitive Status and Decline: A Narrative Review

Anthropometric measurements

Habitual dietary fat intake and risk of muscle weakness and lower-extremity functional impairment in older adults: A prospective cohort study.

Women health

Consumption of fat-free dairy products is not associated with a lower risk of maternofetal adverse events.

Reviews

The association between the level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet and successful aging: An analysis of the ATTICA and MEDIS (MEDiterranean Islands Study) epidemiological studies.

Influence of the Mediterranean and Ketogenic Diets on Cognitive Status and Decline: A Narrative Review.

Deriving valorization of phenolic compounds from olive oil by-products for food applications through microencapsulation approaches: a comprehensive review.

Effects of walnut intake on anthropometric characteristics: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Sustainability

Feeding ecology of a Mediterranean endemic mesopredator living in highly exploited ecosystems.

Observacional studies

Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Factors Associated with Adherence to Mediterranean Diet in Representative Adult Population in Casablanca City, Morocco: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Basic research

Healthspan Maintenance and Prevention of Parkinson's-like Phenotypes with Hydroxytyrosol and Oleuropein Aglycone in C. elegans.

Extraction of γ-oryzanol from rice bran using diverse edible oils: enhancement in oxidative stability of oils.

Others

Consumer Acceptance and Quality Parameters of the Commercial Olive Oils Manufactured with Cultivars Grown in Galicia (NW Spain).

The Role of Diet as an Adjuvant Treatment in Scarring and Nonscarring Alopecia.

Quality evolution of extra-virgin olive oils according to their chemical composition during 22 months of storage under dark conditions.

Reinforced Olive Pâté as a Source of Antioxidants with Positive Effects on Young Smokers.

How efficient is resveratrol as an antioxidant of the Mediterranean diet, towards alterations during the aging process

Summary:

The specific metabolic contribution of consuming different energy-yielding macronutrients (namely, carbohydrates, protein and lipids) to obesity is a current topic of debate. A recent review summarizes the existing evidence concerning associations between the intake of different macronutrients with weight gain and adiposity. Overall, current evidence suggests that energy surplus is the main driver of overweight and obesity. On the contrary, the question of refined sugars and some fats playing complementary roles in weight gain and whether calories from different macronutrients count as equal still remain very controversial. In this regard, dietary patterns particularly rich in sources of monounsaturated fats, such as extra virgin olive oil in the Mediterranean diet, have been inversely associated with BMI. This highlights the importance of the fat profile and not just the total amount of fat or differences attributed to genetic background.

The Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with a lower risk of chronic conditions related to aging. Adherence research primarily comes from Mediterranean countries, where there is a favorably high cultural acceptability. An intervention study that examined the feasibility of a Mediterranean diet intervention was designed specifically for older Australians. During post intervention this study observed that all participants were using extra virgin olive oil as their main source of culinary fat and had made a very significant increase in their intake (initial mean 1.15 (±0.86) to 2.53 (±1.19) tbsp/day).

In addition, a growing body of evidence has demonstrated that lifestyle habits and nutritional patterns could delay the natural course of the neurodegenerative process. At this time, the scientific literature cannot provide exhaustive conclusions on the impact of dietary patterns on neurodegenerative disorders, including the effectiveness in reducing the risk of development and progression of cognitive impairment. However, the Mediterranean diet has in fact demonstrated to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality, which can be recommended to patients regardless of their age, clinical conditions, and comorbidities.
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