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Epidemiological research
Therapeutic alternative of the ketogenic Mediterranean diet to improve mitochondrial activity in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS): A Comprehensive Review.
Improving Nutrition Information in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Implementation of Front-Of-Pack Nutrition Labelling.

Basic research
Addition of fish oil to atherogenic high fat diet inhibited atherogenesis while olive oil did not, in LDL receptor KO mice.
Pomace Olive Oil Concentrated in Triterpenic Acids Restores Vascular Function, Glucose Tolerance and Obesity Progression in Mice.
Safety Evaluations of Single Dose of the Olive Secoiridoid S-(-)-Oleocanthal in Swiss Albino Mice.

Randomized controlled trial
The Effects of a 6-Month High Dose Omega-3 and Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Antioxidant Vitamins Supplementation on Cognitive Function and Functional Capacity in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

Genome-Wide Association Study for Serum Omega-3 and Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Exploratory Analysis of the Sex-Specific Effects and Dietary Modulation in Mediterranean Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome.


Observational studies
Exclusive olive oil consumption was favorably associated with metabolic indices and lifestyle factors in schoolchildren.
Mediterranean dietary patterns and risk of type 2 diabetes in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Adherence to a Mediterranean Dietary Pattern and Functional Parameters: A Cross-Sectional Study in an Older Population.

Summary:

Olive oil consumption has been suggested to have a favourable impact on children's health. This observational study aimed to investigate the association between olive oil consumption and metabolic indices (obesity and cardiovascular fitness) and lifestyle factors (dietary habits, sleep, and screen time). Population data was derived from a health survey on a sample of 177,091 children aged 8–17 years old in Greece. This study showed that an exclusive use of olive oil among schoolchildren was inversely associated with obesity (total and central) and favourably associated with cardiorespiratory fitness. In addition, olive oil intake was strongly associated with a healthy lifestyle profile. Authors explain that the exclusive consumption of olive oil as part of a balanced Mediterranean dietary pattern does seem to provide favourable health benefits and should be further promoted. In the same way, a very recent observational study (cross-sectional study) conducted in 1,491 older adults (≥ 65 years old) observed how the Mediterranean dietary pattern (which includes olive oil consumption as the main fat) has been related to longevity and can support physical function in older adults. More specifically, the authors of this study observed that non-adherence to a Mediterranean Dietary Pattern was associated with both lower values ​​of handgrip strength and longer sitting time.

Regarding experimental studies on animals models, we highlight a study that investigated the effects of fish oil and olive oil on the process of atherosclerosis. The Mediterranean diet has been associated with decreased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and both fish and olive oil are key components of this diet. Therefore, they compared their effects on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and atherogenesis in a mouse model by administering a high fat diet, high fat+ fish oil diet and high fat+ olive oil diet. The additions of both fish and olive oil significantly decreased plasma cholesterol elevation compared to the high fat diet. Fish oil reduced liver steatosis and inflammation while olive oil reduced steatosis alone. Lastly, only the addition of fish oil significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion area by 51% compared to the high fat group.

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