When it comes to healthy diets, appropriate distribution of macronutrients with respect to total energy intake (45–65%, 10–35%, and 20–35% for carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, respectively) has been generally associated with lower risk of chronic diseases and adequate micronutrient intake. However, as a newly published study from the SUN cohort suggests, macronutrient quality is likely to be even more important than macronutrient quantity. Investigators developed the Macronutrient Quality Index (MQI), a novel global index based on the best scientific evidence available that combines three equally weighted sub-indexes: the Carbohydrate Quality Index, the Fat Quality Index and the Healthy Plate Protein source Quality Index. As expected, participants with higher MQI scores had higher intakes of vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, fish and seafood, white meats, skimmed dairy products, nuts, olive oil, polyunsaturated fatty acids and fiber. These food groups contain high nutritional density and contain bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, polyphenols, and oleocanthal that confer cardioprotective effects. Consistently, this study found a significant inverse relationship between the MQI and a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Additionally, results showed that better MQI with greater adherence to MedDiet or a Provegetarian diet was also associated with a lower risk of CVD.