The Mediterranean diet alone has been shown to improve HDL and triglyceride levels and reduce obesity rates in recent trials. Additionally, physical exercise and energy-restrictive dietary patterns have also been shown to improve HDL function. This week we would like to share with you a clinical trial conducted by PREDIMED-Plus, involving 391 adults with metabolic syndrome, over a 6-month intervention comparing two branches that had a good adherence to the Mediterranean diet, traditionally high in olive oil consumption. One of the study branches was assigned to a physical activity intervention and an energy-restricted diet (191 people) and the other as a control. Although no significant increase in HDL levels was observed, those who underwent the intervention had a weight loss of 3.83kg (95%CI 3.09 to 4.57) which was significantly higher compared to the control group, as well as a decrease in triglyceride levels.