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Cancer

Nutraceuticals in the Mediterranean Diet: Potential Avenues for Breast Cancer Treatment.

Cardiovascular disease/ Metabolic disease

Whole-Grain Intake in the Mediterranean Diet and a Low Protein to Carbohydrates Ratio Can Help to Reduce Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease, Slow Down the Progression of Aging, and to Improve Lifespan: A Review.

Prospective association between a Mediterranean-style dietary score in childhood and cardiometabolic risk in young adults from the ALSPAC birth cohort.

A weight-loss Mediterranean diet/lifestyle intervention ameliorates inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: results of the "MIMOSA" randomized clinical trial.

Gut microbiome

Mediterranean diet consumption affects the endocannabinoid system in overweight and obese subjects: possible links with gut microbiome, insulin resistance and inflammation.

Effect of Diet and Dietary Components on the Composition of the Gut Microbiota.

Lifestyle

Successful aging and lifestyle comparison of Greeks living in Greece and abroad: the epidemiological Mediterranean Islands Study (MEDIS).

The Impact of Lifestyle, Diet and Physical Activity on Epigenetic Changes in the Offspring-A Systematic Review.

Mental health

Examining the Moderating Role of a Mediterranean Diet in the Relationship Between Perceived Stress and Cognitive Function in Older Adults.

The Relationship between Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet, Intake of Specific Foods and Depression in an Adult Population (45-75 Years) in Primary Health Care. A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study.

Higher circulating α-carotene was associated with better cognitive function: an evaluation among the MIND trial participants.

Mental health and adherence to Mediterranean diet among university students: an Italian cross-sectional study.

Olive oil

Short Dietary Intervention with Olive Oil Increases Brown Adipose Tissue Activity in Lean but not Overweight Subjects.

Pregnancy

Maternal profile according to Mediterranean diet adherence and small for gestational age and preterm newborn outcomes.
Others

The Portuguese MEDITERRANEAN DIET Wheel: development considerations.

A Systematic Review of Worldwide Consumption of Ultra-Processed Foods: Findings and Criticisms.

The SHED Index: a tool for assessing a Sustainable HEalthy Diet.

[Diet and asthma: Better eating for better breathing?].

Sodium and Potassium Content of Foods Consumed in an Italian Population and the Impact of Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet on Their Intake.

Trends in the adherence to the Mediterranean diet in Israeli adolescents: results from two national health and nutrition surveys, 2003 and 2016.

Intake of Nuts and Seeds Is Associated with a Lower Prevalence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in US Adults: Findings from 2005-2018 NHANES.

Other news

https://www.oliveoiltimes.com/health-news/oleocanthal-based-treatment-shows-promise-against-aggressive-type-of-breast-cancer/98349

https://www.mercacei.com/noticia/55216/actualidad/med-index-un-sistema-de-etiquetado-adaptado-al-aove.html

Summary:

The Mediterranean diet is considered one of the healthiest dietary patterns to prevent diseases, in particular for the reduction of cardiovascular risk factors. Overweight, but more specifically obesity; an indisputable component of the metabolic syndrome, shows strong associations with many diseases such as diabetes, some types of cancer, and especially cardiovascular diseases. As such, it is comprehensible that overwhelming evidence supports the reduction of disease risk and weight through suitable diets such as the Mediterranean diet. In an 8-week randomized controlled trial among overweight and obese subjects Tagliamonte et al. found novel mechanisms mediating the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet such as the reduced activation of the endocannabinoid system and processes involving the nuclear receptor for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α). The changes were observed independently from weight changes and resulted in improvements in insulin sensitivity and lower inflammation markers such as C-reactive protein. This study revealed interesting pathways explaining some of the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet, however follow-up studies at a larger scale are necessary to assess whether the temporary metabolic and gut microbiome changes are maintained in the long term.
In a short dietary intervention with olive oil Monfort-Pires et al. investigated brown adipose tissue (BAT) as a potential target for the treatment of obesity and metabolic disorders. Endogenous mediators of BAT activity, secretin, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), and 12,13-dihydroxy-9Z-octadecenoic acid (12,13-diHOME) were increased by intervention in lean subjects, whereas secretin and FGF21 were increased in subjects with excessive weight. The authors of the study concluded that a significant activation of BAT with a concurrent increase in blood monounsaturated fatty acid levels by olive oil occurs primarily among lean people.
For the prevention of metabolic syndrome (MS), many recommendations for dietary strategies emphasize the Mediterranean diet. The aforementioned articles underline the breadth of mechanisms and beneficial effects conferred by the Mediterranean diet, which cannot be reduced to a single component. Nevertheless, special attention should placed on micronutrients such as potassium. 24-h potassium excretion, as the most valid proxy for dietary intake, was used to assess the relation between potassium intake and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. MS occurred more often in subjects with higher potassium excretion in a dose-response relationship. Potassium excretion also proved to have adequate predictive ability to evaluate the risk for the development of MS. These findings shed light on potassium, an important micronutrient which should be considered for dietary pattern recommendations, according to individual potassium levels at baseline.

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