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Health benefits of the Mediterranean Diet
Mediterranean-style dietary pattern improves cancer-related fatigue and quality of life in men with prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy: A pilot randomised control trial.

Poor Adherence to Mediterranean Diet and Serum Lipopolysaccharide are Associated with Oxidative Stress in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Reduction in Circulating Advanced Glycation End Products by Mediterranean Diet is Associated with Increased Likelihood of type 2 Diabetes Remission in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease: From the Cordioprev Study.

Association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors.

Changes in hand grip strength and body weight after a dynamic exercise program and Mediterranean diet in women with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized clinical trial.

Weight Status, Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet, and Physical Fitness in Spanish Children and Adolescents: The Active Health Study.

Biological mechanisms
Whole Blood DNA Methylation Signatures of Diet Are Associated with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and All-cause Mortality.

The Effect of Three Mediterranean Diets on Remnant Cholesterol and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Secondary Analysis.

Basic research
Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of hydroxytyrosol are dependent on the food matrix in humans.The High-Fat Diet Based on Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Causes Dysbiosis Linked to Colorectal Cancer Prevention.

Extra Virgin Olive Oil Phenol Extracts Exert Hypocholesterolemic Effects through the Modulation of the LDLR Pathway: In Vitro and Cellular Mechanism of Action Elucidation.

Reviews
Dietary habits, lipoprotein metabolism and cardiovascular disease: From individual foods to dietary patterns.

Dietary Fat and Cancer-Which Is Good, Which Is Bad, and the Body of Evidence.

Socio-demographics
Gender, Age, Geographical Area, Food Neophobia and Their Relationships with the Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet: New Insights from a Large Population Cross-Sectional Study

Other news
Type 2 diabetes: Using this oil when cooking could help lower your blood sugar levels

Olive oil or coconut oil: Which is worthy of kitchen-staple status?

A family business upended: Brothers rethink how to sell olive oil amid Covid-19



Summary:
Western diets, characterized by a high fat intake, have been linked to colorectal cancer through diet-induced changes in the gut microbiota that over time can result in the presence of a pro- or anti-tumor environment in the colon. With this background, a new study aimed to determine the effects of various sources of fat (extra virgin olive oil, sunflower oil or coconut oil) on colon microenvironment. Findings showed that extra virgin olive oil was the only source of fat that had a beneficial impact on the gut microbiota by promoting an anti-inflammatory environment that could be associated with the prevention of colorectal cancer. Meanwhile, high fat diets containing coconut and sunflower oils lead to a microenvironment that promotes tumor development. Interestingly, these alterations did not correlate with body weight at the end of the dietary intervention.

Other biological mechanisms involved in diet-disease pathogenesis include diet-induced epigenetic changes, which is explained by a series of metabolic and inflammatory disorders. Novel evidence identified an association between DNA methylation and higher adherence to the Mediterranean-style Diet Score, lower risk of CVD risk factors (BMI, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, and type 2 diabetes), as well as all-cause mortality.

Despite all the available evidence on the underlying mechanisms and the health benefits obtained from the Mediterranean Diet, diverse barriers have prevented its widespread adoption. For instance, personality traits are known to impact food preferences and choices, with food neophobia (i.e. avoidance of, and reluctance to taste unfamiliar foods) being one of the major psychological barriers to healthy eating. A large cross-sectional study in Italy found that food neophobia was inversely associated with adherence to the Mediterranean Diet, hindering its potential health benefits. This behavior seems to be most relevant among men, elderly people, and individuals from Southern Italy, as they showed higher levels of food neophobia.

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