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Cancer

Indices of Diet Quality and Risk of Lung Cancer in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study.

Dairy Consumption and Incidence of Breast Cancer in the 'Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra' (SUN) Project.

Risk of Colorectal Cancer in a Brazilian Population is Differentially Associated with the Intake of Processed Meat and Vitamin E.

COVID-19

Eating behaviour, physical activity and lifestyle of Italian children during lockdown for COVID-19.

Lifestyle habits of adults during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in Cyprus: evidence from a cross-sectional study.

Finding the power within and without: How can we strengthen resilience against symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression in Australian parents during the COVID-19 pandemic?

Cardiovascular Disease

Effects of supplementing a healthy diet with pecan nuts or extra-virgin olive oil on inflammatory profile of patients with stable coronary artery disease: a randomized clinical trial.

The Association of Dietary Phytochemical Index with Metabolic Syndrome in Adults.

Elder

Poor Taste and Smell Are Associated with Poor Appetite, Macronutrient Intake, and Dietary Quality but Not with Undernutrition in Older Adults.

Fertility

The Role of Resveratrol in Human Male Fertility.

Kidney Disease

Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and associated factors in the Spanish population attended in primary care: Results of the IBERICAN study.

Energy Expenditure Improved Risk Factors Associated with Renal Function Loss in NAFLD and MetS Patients.

Mental health

MIND diet and cognitive performance in older adults: a systematic review.

Exploratory dietary patterns and cognitive function in the "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN) Prospective Cohort.

Feasibility and acceptability of a multi-domain intervention to increase Mediterranean diet adherence and physical activity in older UK adults at risk of dementia: protocol for the MedEx-UK randomised controlled trial.

Comparison of barriers and facilitators of MIND diet uptake among adults from Northern Ireland and Italy.

Obesity

The Relationship of Vitamin D Status, Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet, and Physical Activity in Obese Children and Adolescents.

Associations between diet quality scores and central obesity among adults in Puerto Rico.

Olive oil

Do consumers understand health claims on extra-virgin olive oil?

A comprehensive review on different classes of polyphenolic compounds present in edible oils.

Pregnancy

Development of national dietary and lifestyle guidelines for pregnant women in Lebanon.

Basic research

Natural Compound from Olive Oil Inhibits S100A9 Amyloid Formation and Cytotoxicity: Implications for Preventing Alzheimer's Disease.

Other news

Mediterranean Diet may prevents memory loss and dementia symptoms

Mediterranean Diet, rich in olive oil, could benefit patients with lupus

Summary:

Health labels on food aim at assessing the quality of nutritional products, aiding consumers to consciously improve their buying decisions based on food quality. Extra virgin olive-oil (EVOO) in particular gained public coverage due to its beneficial effects on the prevention of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. However, it remains unclear to what extent health claims on EVOO correctly communicate health benefits to consumers instead of misleading and creating false expectations.
Most recently, Alessia Lombardi et al. investigated to what extent consumers understand the health claims of EVOO. A 16-item questionnaire was collected after participants were shown these health claims. Despite high variations in comprehension levels on both the type of question and consumer background, 36% of participants gave the correct answers to more than half of the questions. Unlike previous studies with other food groups Alessia Lombardi et al. could not find a general link between education level and the level of understanding of health claims. Instead, higher understanding was rooted in consumers’ pursued interest in nutrition when they considered it an important measure to prevent diseases. Among other determinants of higher comprehension of health claims were households with children, higher age, as well as lower health status, which gives room for speculation on the sensibilizing effects of poor health. Interestingly, non-nutrition related health interests did not result in a better understanding of health claims. Overall, the low level of understanding highlights the necessity for health labels with clear messages and more public health initiatives to increase comprehension among consumers.
Besides the health benefits to prevent cardiovascular diseases, there is rising evidence that a Mediterranean food pattern might also slow down mental deterioration. These conditions are particularly evident in older individuals of western societies and manifest subsequent repercussions in healthcare systems. Yet, no firm preventive recommendations exist for dementia or Alzheimer’s disease, nor other neurodegenerative diseases. Research studies such as the one by Muñoz-García et al. are speculating that nutrition might be a contributing factor, but most importantly it can be positively influenced to prevent these diseases. In this report, a Western dietary pattern (WDP) was compared to a Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) high in vegetables, fruits, nuts, fish, and olive oil. Higher adherence to the WDP was related to a decline in cognitive function over 6 years of follow-up, whereas participants adhering to the MDP showed less cognitive decline. Despite these promising findings, intervention trials studying the Mediterranean food pattern for the prevention of dementia are needed to confirm this pattern’s inverse effects on cognitive function.
Basic research in this field is beginning to emerge. Cellular experiments such as that from Leri et al. have demonstrated that the polyphenol oleuropein aglycone (OleA), a secondary metabolite in olive oil, inhibits amyloid formation in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells which could potentially interfere with the pathological pathway of Alzheimer’s disease. OleA was found to reduce amyloid growth, disintegrate existent fibrils by converting them into non-fibrillar and nontoxic aggregates, and interrupts neuroinflammatory cascades that contribute to this diseases’ pathophysiology. Thus, the intake of EVOO as a source of OleA exhibits theoretical curative potential for Alzheimer’s disease, or at the very least a potential lead for the development of an Anti-Alzheimer drug. Evidently, transferring these results to applied medicine requires further cellular and animal models research. However, the results powerfully demonstrate the mechanisms behind this and other components of olive oil and their effects on neurobiological pathways which could influence Alzheimer’s disease. Hence, one more reason to adhere to the Mediterranean diet for disease prevention.

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