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Cardiovascular disease

Acute administration of the olive constituent, oleuropein, combined with ischemic postconditioning increases myocardial protection by modulating oxidative defense.

Association between Depression, Lifestyles, Sleep Quality and Sense of Coherence in a Population with Cardiovascular Risk.

The gut microbiome modulates the protective association between a Mediterranean diet and cardiometabolic disease risk.

Mediterranean Diet Maintained Platelet Count within a Healthy Range and Decreased Thrombocytopenia-Related Mortality Risk: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds Modulate the HDL Lipidome in Hypercholesterolaemic Subjects: A Lipidomic Analysis of the VOHF Study.

Association between the Mediterranean Diet and Metabolic Syndrome with Serum Levels of miRNA in Morbid Obesity.

COVID-19

Micronutrients, Phytochemicals and Mediterranean Diet: A Potential Protective Role against COVID-19 through Modulation of PAF Actions and Metabolism.

Gut microbiome

Extra-virgin olive oil and the gut-brain axis: influence on gut microbiota, mucosal immunity, and cardiometabolic and cognitive health.

Health behaviours

Recent Trends in Dietary Habits of the Italian Population: Potential Impact on Health and the Environment.

Physical Education and the Adoption of Habits Related to the Mediterranean Diet.

Pregnancy

Maternal Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet during Pregnancy: A Review of Commonly Used a priori Indexes.

Lifestyle

Mediterranean Diet, Screen-Time-Based Sedentary Behavior and Their Interaction Effect on Adiposity in European Adolescents: The HELENA Study.

Well-Being and the Lifestyle Habits of the Spanish Population: The Association between Subjective Well-Being and Eating Habits.

Elder

Poor Taste and Smell Are Associated with Poor Appetite, Macronutrient Intake, and Dietary Quality but Not with Undernutrition in Older Adults.

The Southern European Atlantic Diet and all-cause mortality in older adults.

Olive compounds

Olive oil varieties and ripening stages containing the antioxidants hydroxytyrosol and derivatives in compliance with EFSA health claim.

From Green Technology to Functional Olive Oils: Assessing the Best Combination of Olive Tree-Related Extracts with Complementary Bioactivities.

Other

Thyroid-Modulating Activities of Olive and Its Polyphenols: A Systematic Review.

The Mediterranean Diet in Osteoporosis Prevention: An Insight in a Peri- and Post-Menopausal Population.

The Economic Cost of Diet and Its Association with Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in a Cohort of Spanish Primary Schoolchildren.

Basic research

Hypothalamic Renin-Angiotensin System and Lipid Metabolism: Effects of Virgin Olive Oil versus Butter in the Diet.

Other news

https://www.greekliquidgold.com/index.php/en/news/422-olive-oil-approved-as-a-food-supplement-for-the-first-time

https://www.theolivepress.es/spain-news/2019/08/27/how-olive-oil-improves-memory-and-work-of-brain/
https://www.oliveoiltimes.com/cooking-with-olive-oil/mediterranean-diet-book/90741



Summary:

The Mediterranean diet (MD) and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), as its most characteristic component, have been associated with the prevention of chronic diseases in numerous studies. More research is now emerging on the molecular scale, for example at the platelet level, microbiome profile, miRNA, and lipid components of High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.
Within this molecular context, we found four new interesting research articles. The first, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in an older population with high cardiovascular risk, associated the MD to platelet count and thrombocytopenia. Participants in this study were assigned to one of three dietary groups: MD enriched with either EVOO or nuts as the intervention groups and a low-fat diet as the control group. After 3 years of follow-up, patients following either one of the MD intervention groups had an adequate platelet count (a risk factor that increases over time), particularly among those with near-high levels at baseline. In addition, a decreased risk of thrombocytopenia was observed in the MD intervention groups; in particular among subjects who received EVOO supplementation. These findings further support the cardiovascular benefits of this dietary pattern, which are explained in part by its anti-inflammatory capacity.
A second RCT studied the effect of virgin olive oil and its phenolic compounds in patients with hypercholesterolaemia. Three types of olive oil were evaluated: VOO (virgin olive oil), FVOO (virgin olive oil enriched with its own phenolic compounds) and FVOOT (virgin olive oil with additional phenolic compounds from thyme). Surprisingly, VOO and FVOO (not FVOOT) significantly increased monounsaturated fatty acids and decreased saturated and polyunsaturated fats. These changes are of great value for the HDL lipidome, ensuring an adequate HDL efflux capacity, and ultimately reducing cardiovascular risk.
Novel forms of analyzing the Mediterranean diet are now finding strong relationships between particular microRNA sequences in patients with morbid obesity and metabolic syndrome. Changes in different miRNA were observed in those following the MD pattern, such as higher serum levels of mir-950, which were positively associated with better metabolic profile and HDL within normal range. Likewise, lower serum levels of mir-192 were observed in participants following the MD, whereas high serum levels of mir-192 were associated with worse metabolic profiles and lower HDL.
Finally, a cohort study evaluated the long term effects of the MD pattern and its positive effects on the gut microbiome profile, as well as cardiovascular disease risk. It was noted that greater adherence to the MD resulted in a colonization of strains of bacteria capable of metabolizing dietary fibre. Most notably, significant interactions were observed between MD adherence and gut microbiome in relation to cardiovascular disease risk. The main goal of the article was to promote the inclusion of gut-microbiome analyses in the field of precision nutrition for its potential to identify specific clinical scenarios and offer individualized treatments for patients. In conclusion, these studies at the molecular level open the door to more personalized nutrition and the ability of the MD and EVOO to modulate metabolic risk factors.

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